By Dr Sylvain COMTE - Corporate Makerting Director, Ceva Santé Animale, France
Since the mid 2000’s, the availability of new technology vaccines has increased worldwide and their usage has tremendously expanded in the poultry industry for the past 5 years, especially at hatchery.
These New technology vaccines can be grouped in 3 categories:
- Immune Complex vaccines,
- Vector HVT vaccines,
- Vector FP vaccines.
Despite their differences, they share a number of properties that make them particularly suitable for hatchery vaccination. They have nil to low maternally derived antibody susceptibility, allowing homogeneous vaccine take whatever the chick quality, they offer a very good safety, allowing early vaccination via in-ovo or day old administration and they induce lifelong immunity.
This article presents the global evolution of the usage of these vaccines in broiler vaccination based on vaccine sales report from biologic companies and Ceva internal estimations.
Global Hatchery Injection Practices in 2012
In 2012, 65% of the day old chick broilers have received one vaccination injection either in-ovo or subcutaneously at day-one. 100% of the day-old chick layers or breeders have as well been submitted to an injection.
In broiler production, there is still a large disparity between continents as shown in the following table:
This pratice of hatchery injection, historically based on the vaccination against Marek’s disease or Newcastle disease in Asia, has been enlarged and reinforced by new possibilities for vaccination against IBD (Infectious Bursal Disease), Newcastle disease and Infectious Laryngotracheïtis. All broilers in the Americas are hatchery vaccinated, initially for vaccination against Marek’s disease. South Western Europe as well as Central and Eastern Europe producers pratice hatchery injection historically for Marek’s disease vaccination and presently more and more for IBD and ND control. China and South East Asia have a pretty large practice of hatchery vaccination mainly driven by ND vaccination with oily vaccines. Africa, Middle East and a part of Asia have still a limited level of hatchery vaccination due to the high number of commercial broiler operations, still vaccinating at farm.
Usage of New Technology Vaccines against IBD, ND and LT from 2008 to 2012
The number of day-old chick broiler vaccinated at hatchery with new technology vaccines has very quickly increased in the past 5 years, evolving from 13% in 2008 to 45% in 2012.
This evolution represents a cumulated average growth rate close to 40% per annum from 2008 to 2012. This growth is related to the larger availability in poultry producing countries (based on national registrations) and developing interest for poultry producers.
Amongst the 3 targeted major disease, new technology vaccines against IBD have been introduced the earliest (from 2002 to 2008) and have the largest usage share. They are followed by ND new technology vaccines, which are under rapid expansion.
- IBD new technology vaccines: 32% of the day-old chick broilers receive a new technology vaccine against IBD in 2012. Immune complex IBD vaccines are used on global basis except in USA. In USA, only vector HVT IBD vaccines are used.
- ND new technology vaccines: These vaccines are exclusively based on vector HVT technology. They have been introduced more recently (starting from 2008) and demonstrated the highest growth from 2008 to 2012.
- LT new technology vaccines: These vaccines are based either on vector HVT technology or on vector FP technology. They have been introduced starting from USA in the mid 2000’s and their usage in broiler vaccination is limited to USA and a number of Latin America countries, due to specific epidemiological conditions.
In 2012, 23% of the global broiler production was vaccinated with Ceva new technology vaccines.
As evidence by the above figures, new technology vaccines are developping very fast in hatchery vaccination and start to be available in each and every country.
The new technology vaccines open new fields of possibilities for disease controls and disease management. The Benefits given to the producers come both from their high safety and efficacy and from the advantages of the hatchery vaccination methods. They allow suppressing vaccination at farm for IBD and LT and limiting booster at farm for ND, thus simplifying vaccination programs. The absence of MDA interference increases homogeneity of vaccine take. Recently, Ceva’s introduced the possibility to combined 2 new technology vaccines (IBD Immune Complex - Transmune® IBD and Vector HVT ND - Vectormune® ND) in a single dose in the hatchery giving life-long protection against three major poultry diseases - Newcastle, Gumboro and Marek’s disease - a major step forwards for poultry production.
Hatchery vaccination increases control and homogeneity of vaccination process: fewer people to manage and train at hatchery as compared to hundred of farms. They receive broiler farmers from filed vaccination, freeing more time for core activities related to rearing or farm management.
The key point for their usage is “each bird shall receive a proper dose”. Consequently, administration quality at hatchery is paramount to retrieve all the vaccine potential.
Poultry production is expected to become the major source of food protein in the coming 30 years. Given the resources scarcity and the economical pressure, high rearing technicality and performances optimization will become more and more important in the near future for poultry producers. Disease control is one of the major challenges for performance optimization. The new technology vaccines combined with the hatchery vaccination bring a new set of possibilities in terms of vaccine safety and efficiency as well as vaccination organization. A number of producers have positively experienced it in the past 5 years.
(Source: "Axis Magazine - Poultry” - VIV Asia 2013 Edition)